An abbreviation for an insurance clause, Against All Risks.
A proceeding whereby a shipper or consignee seeks permission
to abandon part or all of their cargo.
Act of God
A natural disaster which is outside human intervention, for example,
lightning, floods or earthquakes.
A Latin term which means 'according to value.'
Advice of Shipment
A notice advising a buyer that the shipment has moved ahead,
containing details of the packing, route, etc. Often enclosed
are copies of the invoice and the bill of lading.
A bank in the seller's country, which can handle letters of credit
from foreign banks referred by the buyer.
A contract that binds an ocean carrier to provide cargo space
to an importer or exporter at a determined time and price.
In the logistics supply chain, the types of agents include:
ii Commission merchants
iii Resident buyers
iv Sales agents
v Manufacturer's representatives
The non-negotiable Forwarding or Carrying Agreement between the
shipper and the air carrier.
The side of a ship; goods to be delivered 'alongside' entails
that they are to be placed along the dock or barge, within
reach of the transport ship's tackle for loading.
The temperature of the atmosphere that surrounds a body, and
different the temperature of the body itself. The ambient
temperature of a container, for example, is the atmospheric
temperature to which it is exposed during storage or freight.
An abbreviation for Automated Manifest System, the multi-modular
cargo inventory control system of the U.S. Customs.
A tariff imposed on the sale of subsidized foreign goods. The
tariff serves to discourage sale of foreign goods at low
prices, which is detrimental to domestic manufacturers.
A notification by the carrier, informing of the ship's arrival
to the consignee, the 'Notify Party,' and - when applicable
- the 'Also Notify Party.' These parties in interest are
listed in the Bill of Lading in blocks 3, 4 and 10, respectively.
An abbreviation for 'Bill of Lading.'
An abbreviation for 'Bunker Adjustment Factor.' This is a factor
used to calculate the compensation for steamship lines adjusting
for fluctuating fuel costs. It is also known as Bunker Charge,
'Fuel Adjustment Factor' or FAF.
The guarantee issued by a bank to a carrier. to be used in lieu
of the original, negotiable bill-of-lading which has been
lost or misplaced.
An unlawful or fraudulent act committed by the master or mariners
of a vessel, contrary to their duty to the owners and wherein
the latter sustain injury.
The base tariff rate, or the ocean rate less accessorial charges,
chargeable for the transportation of goods.
- Entity to whom money is payable.
- Entity to whom a letter of credit is issued.
- The seller and the drawer of a draft.
A two-way contract, affecting and binding any two parties.
Bill of Exchange
An order issued by an individual or business, directing the recipient
to pay money to a third party at a fixed future date.
Bill of Lading (B/L)
A document that establishes the terms of the contract between
a shipper and a transportation company. It serves as a document
of title, a contract of carriage and a receipt for goods.
Amended B/L B/L requiring updates that do not change financial status.
Slightly different from corrected B/L
B/L Terms & Conditions Defines what the carrier can and cannot do, including
the carrier's liabilities and contractual agreements.
B/L's Status States whether the Bill of Lading has been rated, reconciled,
printed, or released to the customer.
B/L's Type Refers to the type of B/L being issued. Some examples
are: Memo (ME), Original (OBL), Non-negotiable, Corrected
(CBL) or Amended (AM) B/L.
Cancelled B/L Signifies a processed B/L that has been cancelled, usually
on the shipper's request. Different from voided B/L.
Clean B/L A B/L which has no superimposed clause or notation which
declares a defective condition of the goods and/or the
Combined B/L B/L that covers cargo moving over various transports.
Consolidated B/L B/L combined or consolidated from two or more B/L.
Corrected B/L Updated B/L resulting in financially-related changes.
Domestic B/L Non-negotiable B/L, primarily containing routing details.
Usually used by truckers and freight forwarders.
Duplicate B/L Another original Bill of Lading set if first set is
lost. Also known as re-issued B/L.
Express B/L Non-negotiable B/L where there are no hard copies of
Freight B/L A contract of carriage between a shipper and forwarder
(who is usually a NVOCC). A non-negotiable document.
House B/L B/L issued by a freight forwarder or consolidator covering
a single shipment containing the names, addresses and
specific description of the goods shipped.
Intermodal B/L B/L covering cargo moving via multi-modal means. Also
known as Combined Transport B/L or Multimodal B/L.
Long Form B/L B/L form with all Terms & Conditions written on it.
Most B/L's are short forms which incorporate the long
form clauses by reference.
Memo B/L Unfreighted B/L with no charges listed.
B/L Numbers U.S. Customs' standardized B/L numbering format to facilitate
electronic communications and to make each B/L number
Negotiable B/L A negotiable B/L is a title document issued to the shipper,
whose endorsement is required to effect a negotiation.
Thus, a shipper's negotiable B/L can be bought, sold,
or traded while goods are in transit and is commonly
used for letter-of-credit transactions. The buyer must
submit the original B/L to the carrier in order to take
possession of the goods.
Non-Negotiable B/L See Straight B/L. Also referred to a as a file copy of
'Onboard' B/L B/L validated at the time of loading for transportation.
Onboard Air, Boxcar, Container, Rail, Truck and Vessel
are the most common types.
Optional Discharge B/L B/L covering cargo with more than one discharge point
'Order' B/L See Negotiable B/L.
Original B/L The part of the B/L that has value, especially when negotiable.
Received for Shipment B/L Validated when the cargo is received by ocean carrier
to commence movement but before being validated as 'Onboard'.
Reconciled B/L B/L set which has completed a prescribed number of edits
between the shipper's instructions and the actual shipment
received. This produces a very accurate B/L.
Short Term B/L A form of B/L without the Terms & Conditions written
on it. The terms are incorporated by reference to the
long form B/L.
Split B/L One of two or more B/L's which have been split from a
Stale B/L A B/L which has passed the time deadline of the L/C and
Straight (Consignment) B/L Indicates the shipper will deliver the goods to the consignee.
It does not convey title (non-negotiable). Most often
used when the goods have been pre-paid.
To Order B/L See Negotiable B/L.
Unique B/L Identifier U.S. Customs' standardization: four-alpha code unique
to each carrier placed in front of nine digit B/L number;
APL's unique B/L Identifier is ‘APLU’; Sea-land uses
‘SEAU’. These prefixes are also used as the container
Voided B/L Related to Consolidated B/L. The B/Ls' absorbed in the
combining process. Different from Cancelled B/L.
Bill of Sale
A confirmation of the transfer of ownership of certain goods
from one person to another person, for a specified amount
Blocking or Bracing
Wood or metal supports (Dunnage) that serve to keep cargo shipments
To gain access to a vessel.
Freight transported under a bond, which can only be delivered
once the stated conditions of the bond are met.
An authorised warehouse by Customs authorities for storing goods,
where payment of duties can be deferred.
The process of unloading and distributing a part or all of the
contents of a rail car, container, or trailer, loose, non-containerised
Loose, non-containerized cargo.
Cargo that is shipped loose in the hold of a ship, without any
marks or count. Grain, coal and sulphur are examples of cargo
that usually fall under this category.
A container that allows bulk commodities to be carried, with
a discharge hatch inbuilt into the front wall.
A maritime term used to refer to the fuel used aboard the ship.
Bridge Point/Bridge Port
The port where the cargo is unloaded by the ocean carrier, and
moved to another vessel.
A term used for water transportation between ports of a nation,
and often referring to coast-wise navigation or trade.
An abbreviation referring to the 'Currency Adjustment Factor,'
a charge that is expressed as a percentage of the base rate
and applied to compensate ocean carriers against currency
- A Customs document permitting the holder to temporarily send
goods to specified foreign countries, without paying duties
or posting bonds for these goods.
- Any of various Customs documents required while crossing certain
A manifest that lists the details of all the cargo carried on
a specific carrier.
A person or organisation in a contract of carriage who undertakes
to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea,
air, inland waterway or by a combination of these modes.
A certificate required by Customs to release cargo to the correct
A term that refers to inland hauling by drays or trucks.
Cash Against Documents (CAD)
A method of payment wherein the documents transferring title
of goods are given to the buyer, upon receipt of cash to
an intermediary acting for the seller, usually a commission
Certificate of Origin
A certified document showing the origin of goods, used for international
An abbreviation for 'Container Freight Station'; a shipping dock
or storage area, where cargo is loaded to or unloaded from
A demand made for payment to compensate a loss sustained through
alleged negligence in transportation.
Clean Bill of Lading
A receipt for goods issued by a carrier with an indication that
the goods were received in good order and condition, without
damage or other irregularities. If no notation or exception
is made, the B/L is assumed to be ‘clean’.
The Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (COGSA) is an act that standardizes
the carrier's liability through the Bill of Lading.
A complete record of the transaction between exporter and importer
with regard to the goods sold. It reports the content of
the shipment, and serves as the basis for all other documents
about the shipment.
The article to be shipped. For dangerous and hazardous cargo,
correct commodity identification is critical.
A transportation company which provides service at fixed rates
to the general public.
The type of law based on precedent, custom and usage rather than
statutes, particularly the laws of India, England and the
An association of ship owners operating under collective conditions
and agreed tariff rates in the same trade route.
Confirmed Letter of Credit
Confirmation of the validity by a domestic bank of a letter of
credit issued by a foreign bank. A domestic seller with a
confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment, even if
the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults.
The bank that adds its confirmation to the issuing bank's letter
of credit, and promises to pay the beneficiary upon presentation
of specified documents.
A person or organisation to whom the cargo is sent.
(1) A stock of merchandise advanced to a dealer and located at
his place of business, but with title remaining in the source
(2) A shipment of goods to a consignee.
A person or company shown on the Bill of Lading as the shipper.
Cargo containing shipments of two or more shippers or suppliers.
Container-load shipments may be consolidated for one or more
An individual or company performing a consolidation service for
others, wherein the consolidator takes advantage of lower
full cargo load (FCL) rates, and passes these savings on
to its customers.
The receptacle used for transporting cargo, inland or by air
Container Freight Station
A document listing all the contents, and specifying the loading
and unloading sequence of a container.
A legally binding agreement between two or more persons or organizations,
where they are obliged to carry out reciprocal value actions.
A domestic bank that handles the business of a foreign bank.
A unit for measuring volume; the basic unit being the space contained
by one foot of height, width and length.
A government agency that enforces the rules for its country's
import and export laws.
Customs Bonded Warehouse
See Bonded Warehouse.
The process whereby a declaration is made by the importer on
incoming foreign goods, and entails a duty paid by the importer
on the merchandise.
A form requiring all data in a commercial invoice along with
a certificate of value and/or a certificate of origin. Required
in a few countries, it serves as a seller's commercial invoice.
A penalty charge against shippers or consignees when the cargo
is delayed beyond the allowed period. The charge is set forth
in the charter party or freight tariff.
See also, Detention and Per Diem.
The weight of cargo per cubic foot or measured by any other unit.
A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying
carrier's equipment beyond allowed time. Demurrage applies
to cargo; detention applies to equipment. See Per Diem.
The process of unloading a container, or cargo van.
Discrepancy Letter of Credit
When documents presented do not conform to the requirements of
the letter of credit (L/C), it is referred to as a ‘discrepancy’.
Banks will not process L/C's which have discrepancies. They
will refer the situation back to the buyer and/or seller
and await further instructions.
A form used to acknowledge receipt of cargo and often serves
as basis for preparation of the ocean Bill of Lading.
Documents Against Acceptance (D/A)
The instructions given by a shipper to a bank, stating that the
title-transfer documents of the goods should be delivered
to the buyer upon the buyer's acceptance of the draft attached.
Documents Against Payment (D/P)
An indication on a draft that, on payment, the documents attached
can be released to the drawee.
Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor
to consignee. Also known as House-to-House. Not necessarily
a through rate.
An order issued by a seller against a purchaser which directs
payment through an intermediary bank. Typical bank drafts
are negotiable instruments and are similar in many ways to
checks on checking accounts in a bank.
A draft without any documents attached.
A draft that regardless of the time of acceptance, matures on
a fixed date.
A discounted time draft under a letter of credit that has been
accepted by a bank.
A draft payable on demand, i.e. upon its presentation to the
A draft that matures at a fixed time period after its presentation
A partial refund of an import fee resulting from re-export of
the same goods from the country, or other causes.
The individual or organisation that issues a draft to the buyer,
and thus stands to receive payment.
Charge made for inward haulage by dray or truck. Same as Cartage.
Abbreviation for ‘Electronic Data Interface’; a generic term
used for transmission of data between two or more computer
The customs documents required to clear an import shipment for
entry into a country.
Ex – From
When used in pricing terms, it signifies that the price quoted
applies only at the point of origin. E.g. 'Ex-Factory' or
Notations on the bill of lading that show any irregularities
in packaging, or damage to the cargo made when the cargo
is received at the carrier's terminal or loaded aboard a
Issued with reference to documents with a time period such as
letters of credit, tariffs etc. to advise that stated provisions
will expire after a certain lapse of time.
A government document to be completed by the exporter and filed
with the government, declaring the designated goods to be
shipped out of the country.
A government document permitting the holder of the license to
engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations.
Abbreviation for ‘Full Container Load’. Indicates that the maximum
capacity load has been achieved.
A service whereby cargo to and from regional ports are transferred
to a central hub port for a long-haul ocean voyage.
A short-sea vessel which transfers cargo between a central ‘hub’
port and smaller ‘spoke’ ports.
Abbreviation for 'Forty-Foot Equivalent Units.' A unit for measuring
the container size standard of forty feet. Two twenty-foot
containers or TEU's equal one FEU.
A common clause in contracts that exempts the parties from non-fulfilment
of their obligations as a result of conditions beyond their
control, such as earthquakes, floods or war.
Foul Bill of Lading
A receipt issued by a carrier indicating that the goods were
damaged when received. See also: Clean Bill of Lading.
A lost shipment that is located and sent to its actual destination
without incurring any additional charges.
The amount of time that a carrier's equipment may be used without
incurring additional charges. (See Storage, Demurrage or
An invoice issued by the carrier based on the Bill of Lading
and other information. Used to account for a shipment operationally,
statistically, and financially.
A person who acts as an agent on behalf of the shipper, and who
often makes the booking reservation.
Industry-related. A point at which freight moving from one territory
to another is interchanged between transportation lines.
Abbreviation for 'General Rate Increase.' An across-the-board
tariff rate increase, implemented by conference members and
applied to base rates.
A consolidation service that puts small shipments into FCL containers
Harmonised System of Codes (HS)
Developed by the Brussels-based Customs Co-operations Council
(CCC), an international goods classification system for describing
cargo in international trade under a single commodity-coding
Cargo loaded into a container by the shipper under shipper's
supervision. When the cargo is exported, it is unloaded at
the foreign pier destination.
Abbreviation for International Chamber of Commerce.
Abbreviation for ‘International Maritime Consultative Organization’.
A forum made up of major maritime nations, where recommendations
for the carriage of dangerous goods, bulk commodities and
maritime regulations become internationally acceptable.
Abbreviation for ‘International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code’.
The regulations published by the IMCO for transporting hazardous
To receive goods from a foreign country.
A government document authorizing the importation of goods.
Cargo moving under Customs control, on which duty has not yet
An agreement that holds a carrier harmless with regards to a
An insurance term that refers to any defect or cause of damage
inherent in the product without external cause (for example,
instability in a chemical that could cause it to explode
spontaneously). Insurance policies may exclude inherent vice
A certificate issued by an agent or firm affirming the quality
and/or quantity of the merchandise being shipped. Such a
certificate is usually required in a letter of credit for
Insurance with Average-clause
In marine insurance, the word average describes partial damage
or partial loss; this clause covers merchandise if the damage
amounts to 3% or more of the insured value of the package
The broadest insurance coverage available to the shipper, covering
against all losses incurred during transit.
In ocean freight, the deliberate sacrifice of part of the cargo
to make the vessel safe for the remaining cargo. The loss
is covered by those sharing in the spared cargo proportionately.
Insurance, Particular Average
A marine insurance term to refer to partial loss on an individual
shipment from one of the perils insured against, regardless
of the balance of the cargo. Particular average insurance
can usually be obtained, but the loss must be in excess of
a certain percentage of the insured value of the shipment,
usually three to five percent, before a claim will be allowed
by the company.
Denotes movement of cargo containers across various transport
modes, for example, motor, water, and air carriers.
Irrevocable Letter of Credit
A letter of credit wherein all terms and conditions being met
by the drawee, the specified payment is guaranteed by the
bank. It cannot be revoked without joint agreement of both
the buyer and the seller.
A bank that opens a straight or negotiable letter of credit,
and assumes the obligation to pay the beneficiary if the
documents presented are in accordance with the terms of the
letter of credit.
The carrier issuing transportation documents or publishing a
A loss discovered any time at or before the delivery of a shipment.
Movement of cargo by water from one country through the port
of another country and then using rail or truck to an inland
point in that country or to a third country. An example is
the through movement of Asian cargo to Europe across North
The total cost of goods to a buyer, including the cost of transportation.
Certificate issued at the point or place of export, when the
subject goods are exported under bond, by consular officials
of some importing countries.
Abbreviation for ‘Less than Container Load’. The quantity of
freight which is less than that required for the application
of a container load rate. Loose Freight.
Less-than-Truckload is a service offered by freight companies
for businesses that only need a small shipment of goods delivered.
Letter of Credit (LC)
A document, issued by a bank on the instructions of a buyer of
goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of
money under specified terms. Some of the specific descriptions
Back-to-Back A new letter of credit issued to another beneficiary
on the strength of a primary credit. The second LC uses
the first LC as collateral for the bank. Used in a three-party
Clean A letter of credit that requires the beneficiary to present
only a draft or a receipt for specified funds before
Confirmed An LC guaranteed by both the issuing and advising banks
of payment so long as seller's documents are in order,
and the LC terms are met. Only applied to irrevocable
LCs’. The confirming bank assumes the credit risk of
the issuing bank.
Deferred Payment A letter of credit issued for the purchase and financing
of merchandise, similar to acceptance-type letter of
credit, except that it requires presentation of sight
drafts payable on an instalment basis.
Irrevocable An instrument that cannot be modified or cancelled without
the agreement of all parties concerned.
Non-cumulative A revolving letter of credit that prohibits the amount
not used during the specific period from being available
Restricted A condition within the letter of credit which restricts
its negotiation to a named bank.
Revocable An instrument that can be modified or cancelled at any
moment without notice to an agreement of the beneficiary.
Rarely used since there is no protection for the seller.
Revolving An irrevocable letter issued for a specific amount. Renews
itself for the same amount over a given period.
Straight A letter of credit that contains a limited engagement
clause which states that the issuing bank promises to
pay the beneficiary upon presentation of the required
documents at its counters or the counters of the named
Transferable A letter of credit that allows the beneficiary to transfer
in whole or in part to another beneficiary any amount
which, in aggregate, of such transfers does not exceed
the amount of the credit. Used by middlemen.
Unconfirmed A letter of credit forwarded to the beneficiary by the
advising bank without engagement on the part of the advising
Letter of Indemnity
In order to obtain the clean Bill of Lading, the shipper signs
a Letter of Indemnity, although the dock or mate's receipt
showed that the shipment was damaged or in bad condition.
* Some governments require certain commodities to be licensed
prior to exportation or importation. Clauses attesting to
compliance are often required on the B/L.
* Various types issued for export (general, validated) and import
as mandated by government(s).
A legal claim upon goods in the hands of another party for the
satisfaction of some debt or duty.
Insurance covering loss or damage of goods at sea, which typically
compensates the owner of goods for losses sustained from
fire, shipwreck, etc., but excludes losses that can be recovered
from the carrier.
An intermodal system for transporting containers by ocean and
then inland to a port that previously served as an all water
route (e.g., Hong Kong to New York over Seattle).
The lowest charge that can be assessed to transport a shipment.
Synonymous for all practical purposes with ‘Intermodal’.
Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC)
A cargo consolidator in ocean trades who will buy space from
a carrier and then sell it to smaller shippers. The NVOCC
issues Bills of Lading, publishes tariffs and conducts itself
as an ocean common carrier, except that it will not provide
the actual ocean or intermodal service.
Ocean Bill of Lading (Ocean B/L)
A contract for transportation between a shipper and a carrier.
It also evidences receipt of the cargo by the carrier. A
Bill of Lading shows ownership of the cargo and, if made
negotiable, can be bought, sold or traded while the goods
A notation on a Bill of Lading that cargo has been loaded on
board a vessel. Used to satisfy the requirements of a Letter
of Credit, in the absence of an express requirement to the
A notation on a Bill of Lading that the cargo has been stowed
on the open deck of the ship.
Open Insurance Policy
A marine insurance policy that applies to all shipments over
a period of time rather than to one shipment only.
Open Top Container
A container fitted with a removable roof, so the container can
be loaded or unloaded from the top.
A term used for the surrender of the original Bill of Lading
before freight is released. Usually associated with a shipment
covered under a letter of credit.
Original Bill of Lading (OBL)
A document which requires proper signatures for consummating
carriage of contract. Must be marked as ‘original’ by the
Cargo that cannot fit into a standard container, i.e. more than
eight feet high.
Perils of the Sea
Those natural causes of loss for which the carrier is not legally
A shipment loaded into a container at the pier or terminal, then
to the consignee's facility.
Containers that are loaded at the port of loading, and discharged
at port of destination. See door-to-door.
Place of Delivery
The place where the cargo leaves the care and custody of the
Place of Receipt
The location where the cargo enters the care and custody of carrier.
Port of Discharge.
Port of Destination.
Proof of Delivery.
A document required from the carrier or driver for proper
Point of Origin
The place where the shipment is received by the carrier.
Port of Loading.
Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants.
Also known as Federal Bill of Lading Act of 1916. U.S. federal
law enacting conditions by which a B/L may be issued. Penalties
for issuing B/L's containing false data include monetary
fines and/or imprisonment.
Port of Discharge
The port where the cargo is discharged from the carrier.
Port of Entry
The port where the cargo is unloaded and enters a country.
Port of Exit
The port where cargo is loaded and leaves the country.
Freight charges paid by the consignor (shipper) prior to the
release of the Bills of Lading by the carrier.
A Latin term meaning 'for the sake of form.'
Pro Forma Invoice
An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise,
informing the buyer of details of goods to be sent, their
value, and specifications.
A Latin term meaning 'in proportion.'
Changing the consignee or destination on a Bill of Lading while
shipment is still in transit. Diversion has substantially
the same meaning.
A common use of the term,'Roll On/Roll Off.' A method of loading
ocean cargo, using a vessel with ramps which allows cargo
to be loaded and discharged without the use of cranes.
To re-book cargo to a later vessel.
The statistical classification of domestic and foreign commodities
exported from the United States.
The document indicating a document of title (b/L) was not needed
the goods when were loaded on-board.
The person or company who is usually the supplier or owner of
Shipper's Load & Count (SL&C)
Shipments that are loaded and sealed by shippers without being
checked or verified by the carriers.
A draft payable upon presentation to the drawee.
Shippers’ load and count. All three clauses are used as needed
on the Bill of Lading to exclude the carrier from liability
when the cargo is loaded by the shipper.
Statute of Limitation
A law that limits the time in which claims or suits may be instituted.
An abbreviation for ‘Said to contain’.
A logistical management system which integrates the sequence
of activities from delivery of raw materials to the manufacturer
through to delivery of the finished product to the customer
into measurable components.
An extra or additional charge.
A charge made for a service performed in a carrier's terminal
Abbreviation for Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit. See FEU.
Abbreviation for Transport International par la Route, an agreement
among European governments and the United States for the
international movement of cargo by road.
To transfer goods from one transportation line to another, or
from one ship to another.
Abbreviation for the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary
Credits, published by the International Chamber of Commerce.
This is the most frequently used standard for making payments
in international trade.
United Nations EDI for Administration, Commerce and Transport.
EDI Standards are developed and supported by the UN for electronic
message interchange on an international level.
Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits (UCP)
The rules for letters of credit drawn up by the Commission on
Banking Technique and Practices of the International Chamber
of Commerce in consultation with the banking associations
of many countries. See Terms of Payment.
Insurance coverage for loss of goods resulting from any act of
A document prepared by a transportation line at the point of
a shipment. Shows the point of the origin, destination, route,
consignor, consignee, description of shipment and amount
charged for the transportation service.
A phrase preceding the signature of a drawer or endorser of a
negotiable instrument; signifies that the instrument is passed
onto subsequent holders without any liability to the endorser
in the event of non-payment or non-delivery.
Abbreviation for ‘Weight or Measurement’, the basis for assessing
freight charges. Also known as ‘worm’.